|GROFFER(1)||General Commands Manual||GROFFER(1)|
option ...] [--] [filespec ...] -h|--help -v|--version
- breaking options
- groffer mode options
- options related to groff
- options for man pages
- long options taken over from GNU man
- X Window Toolkit options
- options for development
- filespec arguments
- stands for standard input (can occur several times).
- the path name of an existing file.
- man:name.section_extension name(section_extension) name.section_extension section_extension name search the man page name in the section with optional extension section_extension.
- man page in the lowest man section that has name.
- if name is not an existing file search for the man page name in the lowest man section.
- -h | --help
- Print help information with a short explanation of options to standard output.
- -v | --version
- Print version information to standard output.
- Equivalent to --mode=auto.
- Reset all configuration from previously processed command line options to the default values. This is useful to wipe out all former options of the configuration, in and restart option processing using only the rest of the command line.
- --default-modes mode1,mode2,...
- Set the sequence of modes for auto mode to the comma separated list given in the argument. See --mode for details on modes. Display in the default manner; actually, this means to try the modes x, ps, and tty in this sequence.
- Equivalent to --mode=dvi.
- --dvi-viewer prog
- Choose a viewer program for dvi mode. This can be a file name or a program to be searched in Known X Window dvi viewers include xdvi(1) and dvilx(1). In each case, arguments can be provided additionally.
- Equivalent to --mode=groff.
- Equivalent to --mode=html.
- Choose a web browser program for viewing in html mode. It can be the path name of an executable file or a program in In each case, arguments can be provided additionally.
- --mode value
- Set the display mode. The following mode values are recognized:
- Select the automatic determination of the display mode.
- The sequence of modes that are tried can be set with the --default-modes option. Useful for restoring the default mode when a different mode was specified before.
- Display formatted input in a
- dvi viewer program. By default, the formatted input is displayed with the xdvi(1) program.
- After the file determination, switch
- groffer to process the input like groff(1) would do. This disables the groffer viewing features.
- Translate the input into html format and display the result in a web
- browser program. By default, the existence of a sequence of standard web browsers is tested, starting with konqueror(1) and mozilla(1). The text html viewer is lynx(1).
- Display formatted input in a
- PDF (Portable Document Format) viewer program. By default, the input is formatted by groff using the Postscript device, then it is transformed into the PDF file format using gs(1), or ps2pdf(1). If that's not possible, the Postscript mode (ps) is used instead. Finally it is displayed using different viewer programs. pdf has a big advantage because the text is displayed graphically and is searchable as well.
- Display formatted input in a Postscript viewer program.
- By default, the formatted input is displayed in one of many viewer programs.
- Format in a
- groff text mode and write the result to standard output without a pager or viewer program. The text device, latin1 by default, can be chosen with option -T.
- Format in a
- groff text mode and write the result to standard output using a text pager program, even when in X Window.
- Equivalent to
- Display the formatted input in a native
- roff viewer. By default, the formatted input is displayed with the gxditview(1) program being distributed together with groff. But the standard X Window tool xditview(1) can also be chosen with the option --x-viewer. The default resolution is 75dpi, but 100dpi are also possible. The default groff device for the resolution of 75dpi is X75-12, for 100dpi it is X100. The corresponding groff intermediate output for the actual device is generated and the result is displayed. For a resolution of 100dpi, the default width of the geometry of the display program is chosen to 850dpi.
- Equivalent to
- Generate device output with plain
- groff without using the special viewing features of groffer. If no device was specified by option -T the groff default ps is assumed.
- Output the roff source code of the input files without further
- Equivalent to --mode=pdf.
- --pdf-viewer prog
- Choose a viewer program for pdf mode. This can be a file name or a program to be searched in arguments can be provided additionally.
- Equivalent to --mode=ps.
- --ps-viewer prog
- Choose a viewer program for ps mode. This can be a file name or a program to be searched in Common Postscript viewers include gv(1), ghostview(1), and gs(1), In each case, arguments can be provided additionally.
- Equivalent to --mode=source.
- Equivalent to --mode=text.
- The file for the chosen mode is generated and its content is printed to standard output. It will not be displayed in graphical mode.
- Equivalent to --mode=tty.
- --tty-viewer prog
- Choose a text pager for mode tty. The standard pager is less(1). This option is equivalent to man option --pager=prog. The option argument can be a file name or a program to be searched in arguments can be provided additionally.
- Equivalent to --mode=html.
- --www-viewer prog
- Equivalent to --html-viewer.
- --X | --x
- Equivalent to --mode=x.
- --X-viewer | --x-viewer prog
- Choose a viewer program for x mode. Suitable viewer programs are gxditview(1) which is the default and xditview(1). The argument can be any executable file or a program in arguments can be provided additionally.
- Signals the end of option processing; all remaining arguments are interpreted as filespec parameters.
- This generates an ascii approximation of output in the text modes. That could be important when the text pager has problems with control sequences in tty mode.
- --m file
- Add file as a groff macro file. This is useful in case it cannot be recognized automatically.
- --P opt_or_arg
- Send the argument opt_or_arg as an option or option argument to the actual groff postprocessor.
- --T devname | --device devname
- This option determines groff's output device. The most important devices are the text output devices for referring to the different character sets, such as ascii, utf8, latin1, and others. Each of these arguments switches groffer into a text mode using this device, to mode tty if the actual mode is not a text mode. The following devname arguments are mapped to the corresponding groffer --mode=devname option: dvi, html, and ps. All X* arguments are mapped to mode x. Each other devname argument switches to mode groff using this device.
- is equivalent to groff -X. It displays the groff intermediate output with gxditview. As the quality is relatively bad this option is deprecated; use --X instead because the x mode uses an X* device for a better display.
- -Z | --intermediate-output | --ditroff
- Switch into groff mode and format the input with the groff intermediate output without postprocessing; see groff_out(5). This is equivalent to option --ditroff of man, which can be used as well.
- Start the apropos(1) command or facility of man(1) for searching the filespec arguments within all man page descriptions. Each filespec argument is taken for search as it is; section specific parts are not handled, such that 7 groff searches for the two arguments 7 and groff, with a large result; for the filespec groff.7 nothing will be found. The language locale is handled only when the called programs do support this; the GNU apropos and man -k do not. The display differs from the apropos program by the following concepts:
- Construct a groff frame similar to a man page to the output of apropos,
- each filespec argument is searched on its own.
- The restriction by --sections is handled as well,
- wildcard characters are allowed and handled without a further option.
- Show only the apropos descriptions for data documents, these are the man(7) sections 4, 5, and 7. Direct section declarations are ignored, wildcards are accepted.
- Show only the apropos descriptions for development documents, these are the man(7) sections 2, 3, and 9. Direct section declarations are ignored, wildcards are accepted.
- Show only the apropos descriptions for documents on programs, these are the man(7) sections 1, 6, and 8. Direct section declarations are ignored, wildcards are accepted.
- For each filespec argument search all man pages and display their description — or say that it is not a man page. This is written from anew, so it differs from man's whatis output by the following concepts
- each retrieved file name is added,
- local files are handled as well,
- the language and system locale is supported,
- the display is framed by a groff output format similar to a man page,
- wildcard characters are allowed without a further option.
- Check the non-option command line arguments (filespecs) first on being man pages, then whether they represent an existing file. By default, a filespec is first tested whether it is an existing file.
- --no-man | --local-file
- Do not check for man pages. --local-file is the corresponding man option.
- Disable former calls of --all, --apropos*, and --whatis.
- In searching man pages, retrieve all suitable documents instead of only one.
- -7 | --ascii
- In text modes, display ASCII translation of special characters for critical environment. This is equivalent to groff -mtty_char; see groff_tmac(5).
- Produce groff intermediate output. This is equivalent to groffer -Z.
- --extension suffix
- Restrict man page search to file names that have suffix appended to their section element. For example, in the file name /usr/share/man/man3/terminfo.3ncurses.gz the man page extension is ncurses.
- --locale language
- Set the language for man pages. This has the same effect, but overwrites
- Print the location of the retrieved files to standard error.
- Do not display the location of retrieved files; this resets a former call to --location. This was added by groffer.
- --manpath 'dir1:dir2:...'
- Use the specified search path for retrieving man pages instead of the program defaults. If the argument is set to the empty string "" the search for man page is disabled.
- Set the pager program in tty mode; default is less. This is equivalent to --tty-viewer.
- --sections sec1:sec2:...
- Restrict searching for man pages to the given sections, a colon-separated list.
- --systems sys1,sys2,...
- Search for man pages for the given operating systems; the argument systems is a comma-separated list.
- Equivalent to --location.
- --background color
- Set the background color of the viewer window.
- --bd pixels
- This is equivalent to --bordercolor.
- --bg color
- This is equivalent to --background.
- --bw pixels
- This is equivalent to --borderwidth.
- --bordercolor pixels
- Specifies the color of the border surrounding the viewer window.
- --borderwidth pixels
- Specifies the width in pixels of the border surrounding the viewer window.
- --display X-display
- Set the X Window display on which the viewer program shall be started, see the X Window documentation for the syntax of the argument.
- --foreground color
- Set the foreground color of the viewer window.
- --fg color
- This is equivalent to -foreground.
- --fn font_name
- This is equivalent to --font.
- --font font_name
- Set the font used by the viewer window. The argument is an X Window font name.
- --ft font_name
- This is equivalent to --font.
- --geometry size_pos
- Set the geometry of the display window, that means its size and its starting position. See X(7) for the syntax of the argument.
- --resolution value
- Set X Window resolution in dpi (dots per inch) in some viewer programs. The only supported dpi values are 75 and 100. Actually, the default resolution for groffer is set to 75dpi. The resolution also sets the default device in mode x.
- Reverse foreground and background color of the viewer window.
- --title 'some text'
- Set the title for the viewer window.
- --xrm 'resource'
- Set X Window resource.
- Enable all debugging options --debug-type. The temporary files are kept and not deleted, the grog output is printed, the name of the temporary directory is printed, the displayed file names are printed, and the parameters are printed.
- Print the names of the files and man pages that are displayed by groffer.
- Print the output of all grog commands.
- Enable two debugging informations. Print the name of the temporary directory and keep the temporary files, do not delete them during the run of groffer.
- Print the parameters, as obtained from the configuration files, from and the command line arguments.
- Print the name of the temporary directory.
- This is like --version, but without the output; no viewer is started. This makes only sense in development.
- Just print the argument to standard error. This is good for parameter check.
- This is an advanced option for debugging only. Instead of displaying the formatted input, a lot of groffer specific information is printed to standard output:
- the output file name in the temporary directory,
- the display mode of the actual groffer run,
- the display program for viewing the output with its arguments,
- the active parameters from the config files, the arguments in and the arguments of the command line,
- the pipeline that would be run by the groff program, but without executing it.
- No filespec parameters means that groffer waits for standard input. The minus option - always stands for standard input; it can occur several times. If you want to look up a man page called - use the argument man:-.
- Next a filespec is tested whether it is the path name of an existing file. Otherwise it is assumed to be a searching pattern for a man page.
- man:name(section_extension), man:name.section_extension, name(section_extension), or name.section_extension search the man page name in man section and possibly extension of section_extension.
- Now man:name searches for a man page in the lowest man section that has a document called name.
- section_extension name is a pattern of 2 arguments that originates from a strange argument parsing of the man program. Again, this searches the man page name with section_extension, a combination of a section character optionally followed by an extension.
- We are left with the argument name which is not an existing file. So this searches for the man page called name in the lowest man section that has a document for this name.
- in a PDF viewer (pdf mode)
- in a web browser (html or www mode)
- in a Postscript viewer (ps mode)
- X Window roff viewers such as gxditview(1) or xditview(1) (in x mode)
- in a dvi viewer program (dvi mode)
- forces to interpret all file parameters as filespecs for searching man pages.
- --local-file disable the man searching; so only local files are displayed.
- The environment variable can be set.
- It can be read from the arguments of the environment variable
- The man path can be manually specified by using the option --manpath. An empty argument disables the man page searching.
- When no man path was set the manpath(1) program is tried to determine one.
- If this does not work a reasonable default path from is determined.
- The environment variable has the lowest precedence.
- This can be overridden by an option in
- This again is overridden by the command line option --systems.
- Enviroment variable
- This is overridden by
- This is overridden by
- This can be overridden by providing an option in
- All these environment variables are overridden by the command line option --locale.
- Environment variable
- Command line option --sections
- Appendix to the name argument in the form <name>.<section>
- Preargument before the name argument in the form <section> <name>
- Environment variable
- Command line option --extension
- Appendix to the <name>.<section> argument in the form <name>.<section><extension>
- Preargument before the name argument in the form <section><extension> <name>
- This is an uncompressed file for the
man page groff in section 1. It can be called by
sh# groffer groff
No section is specified here, so all sections should be searched, but as section 1 is searched first this file will be found first. The file name is composed of the following components. must be part of the man path; the subdirectory and the part stand for the section; is the name of the man page.
- The file name is composed of the following components.
must be part of the man path; the subdirectory and the part stand for the section; is the name of the man page; the final part stands for a compression with gzip(1). As the section is not the first one it must be specified as well. This can be done by one of the following commands.
sh# groffer groff.7
sh# groffer 7 groff
sh# groffer --sections=7 groff
must be in man path; the subdirectory and the file name part stand for section 1; the name of the man page is the section has an extension and the file is compressed as with bzip2(1). The file can be viewed with one of the following commands
sh# groffer ctags.1e
sh# groffer 1e ctags
sh# groffer --extension=e --sections=1 ctags
where e works as an abbreviation for the extension emacs21.
- The directory
is now part of the man path; then there is a subdirectory for an operating system name next comes a subdirectory for the German language; the section names and are known so far; is the name of the man page; and signifies the compression that can be handled by gzip(1). We want now show how to provide several values for some options. That is possible for sections and operating system names. So we use as sections 5 and 7 and as system names linux and aix. The command is then
sh# groffer --locale=de --sections=5:7 --systems=linux,aix man
sh# LANG=de MANSECT=5:7 SYSTEM=linux,aix groffer man
- Store options for a run of
- groffer. The options specified in this variable are overridden by the options given on the command line. The content of this variable is run through the shell builtin `eval'; so arguments containing white-space or special shell characters should be quoted. Do not forget to export this variable, otherwise it does not exist during the run of groffer.
- If this variable is set this indicates that the X Window
system is running. Testing this variable decides on whether graphical or text output is generated. This variable should not be changed by the user carelessly, but it can be used to start the graphical groffer on a remote X Window terminal. For example, depending on your system, groffer can be started on the second monitor by the command
sh# DISPLAY=:0.1 groffer what.ever &
- If one of these variables is set (in the above sequence), its content
- is interpreted as the locale, the language to be used, especially when retrieving man pages. A locale name is typically of the form language[_territory[.codeset[@modifier]]], where language is an ISO 639 language code, territory is an ISO 3166 country code, and codeset is a character set or encoding identifier like ISO-8859-1 or UTF-8; see setlocale(3). The locale values C and POSIX stand for the default, i.e. the man page directories without a language prefix. This is the same behavior as when all 3 variables are unset.
- This variable can be used to set the pager for the tty output.
For example, to disable the use of a pager completely set this variable to the cat(1) program
sh# PAGER=cat groffer anything
- All programs within the
- groffer script are called without a fixed path. Thus this environment variable determines the set of programs used within the run of groffer.
- If the value of this variable is an existing, writable directory,
- groffer uses it for storing its temporary files, just as groff does. See the groff(1) man page for more details on the location of temporary files.
- Restrict the search for
- man pages to files having this extension. This is overridden by option --extension; see there for details.
- This variable contains options as a preset for
- man(1). As not all of these are relevant for groffer only the essential parts of its value are extracted. The options specified in this variable overwrite the values of the other environment variables that are specific to man. All options specified in this variable are overridden by the options given on the command line.
- If set, this variable contains the directories in which the
- man page trees are stored. This is overridden by option --manpath.
- If this is a colon separated list of section names, the search for
- man pages is restricted to those manual sections in that order. This is overridden by option --sections.
- If this is set to a comma separated list of names these are interpreted
- as man page trees for different operating systems. This variable can be overwritten by option --systems; see there for details.
- System-wide configuration file for
- User-specific configuration file for
- groffer, where denotes the user's home directory. This file is called after the system-wide configuration file to enable overriding by the user.
# groffer configuration file
# groffer options that are used in each call of groffer
--x-viewer=gxditview -geometry 900x1200
--pdf-viewer xpdf -Z 150
- Use a text color of DarkBlue in all viewers that support this, such as gxditview.
- Use a resolution of 100dpi in all viewers that support this, such as gxditview. By this, the default device in x mode is set to X100.
- Force gxditview(1) as the x-mode viewer using the geometry option for setting the width to 900px and the height to 1200px. This geometry is suitable for a resolution of 100dpi.
- Use xpdf(1) as the pdf-mode viewer with the argument -Z 150.
sh# groffer /usr/local/share/doc/groff/meintro.ms.gz
sh# groffer groff
sh# groffer man:groff
sh# groffer groff.7
sh# groffer 7 groff
sh# groffer fb.modes
sh# groffer groff ’troff(1)’ man:roff
sh# LANG=de groffer --man --www --www-viewer=galeon ls
sh# groffer --source 'man:roff(7)'
sh# groffer --de-p --in --ap
sh# groffer --debug-params --intermediate-output --apropos
sh# cat file.gz | groffer -Z -mfoo
sh# echo '\f[CB]WOW!' |
> groffer --x --bg red --fg yellow --geometry 200x100 -
Display the word WOW! in a small window in constant-width
bold font, using color yellow on red background.
- The option consisting of a single minus - refers to standard input.
- A single minus followed by characters refers to a single character option or a combination thereof; for example, the groffer short option combination -Qmfoo is equivalent to -Q -m foo.
- Long options are options with names longer than one character; they are always preceded by a double minus. An option argument can either go to the next command line argument or be appended with an equal sign to the argument; for example, --long=arg is equivalent to --long arg.
- An argument of -- ends option parsing; all further command line arguments are interpreted as filespec parameters, i.e. file names or constructs for searching man pages).
All command line arguments that are neither options nor option arguments are interpreted as filespec parameters and stored until option parsing has finished. For example, the command line
sh# groffer file1 -a -o arg file2
sh# groffer -a -o arg -- file1 file2
Details on the options and environment variables available in groff; all of them can be used with groffer.
- Documentation of the groff language.
- Internally, groffer tries to guess the groff command line options from the input using this program.
- Documentation on the groff intermediate output (ditroff output).
- Documentation on the groff macro files.
- The standard program to display man pages. The information there is only useful if it is the man page for GNU man. Then it documents the options and environment variables that are supported by groffer.
Viewers for groffer's x mode.
Viewers for groffer's ps mode.
Viewers for groffer's pdf mode.
Viewers for groffer's dvi mode.
Web-browsers for groffer's html or www mode.
- Standard pager program for the tty mode.
The decompression programs supported by groffer.
Free Software Foundation, Inc.
|28 March 2016||Groff Version 1.22.1|